Colonialism involves a takeover. An indigenous population is directly ruled or displaced. The colonizing country generally dominates the resources, labor, and markets of the colony. It may also impose socio-cultural, religious and linguistic restrictions on the conquered population. It is useful to consider seven components of colonialism: grabbing the land, growing for Europe, developing Europe, consuming colonially, hatching hierarchies, killing cultures, and exploiting the land.
"There is no postcolonialism in Puerto Rico. Puerto Ricans living on the island and in the United States still suffer from internal colonialism. Building a mass movement of independence seems almost impossible for Puerto Rico. However, the ideology of independence lives within the hearts of many Puerto Ricans, whether in silence or demonstrated through direct action. Despite the climate of intimidation caused by political repression, and the often self-imposed passivity and censorship, the desire for independence remains an integral element of the Puerto Rican national character."
- --Angelina Villafañe, student of Berkeley Professor Patricia Hilden. "The Failure or Possibility of Puerto Rican Independence." (1998)
This image represents the reach of colonialism with maps and a powerful symbol. The bald eagle represents the United States, and the cartoonist is showing that the U.S. is trying to control or annex the entire Western Hemisphere, from Puerto Rico to the Philippines. Click on the image, and look closely to see that there are two eagles in this cartoon. The smaller one shows how big the United States was 100 years earlier, in 1798.